Fine tuning


Teleological arguments are arguments from the order in the universe to the existence of God. They are also known as arguments from design (or, to be precise, arguments to design). 

William Paley likened the universe to a watch, with many ordered parts working in harmony to further some purpose. Just as the complexity, order, and purpose of a watch implies intelligent design, he suggested, so too the complexity, order, and purpose of the universe implies intelligent design.

If the universe contains design then there must be some intelligent agent that designed it. Although a few dispute this, speaking of nature, or evolution, as our designers, this appears to be a simple linguistic truth. Just as if something is carried then there must be a carrier, so if there is design there must be a designer.

(1) The fine-tuning of the universe is due to either physical necessity, chance, or design 

(2) It is not due to physical necessity 

(3) It is not due to chance 

(4) Therefore, it is due to design

Introductory Videos

Essential Books

A great introductory book on apologetics and recommended for beginners. This book introduces you to the evidence for the fine-tuning of the universe providing an argument, and how to defend it. This book also comes with a study guide

Level: Beginner

If you want to be familiar with the scientific discoveries that support the evidence for a personal creator, then this is your book to understand purposeful origin and development

Level: Beginner

If you have read On Guard, then this is the level up and may feel quite a leap in terms of depth. Here you will get a fuller, more in depth case and defence of the arguments you learnt about in On Guard with more in-depth analysis of opposing theories. This book also comes with a study guide

Level: Intermediate

A level up from Reasonable Faith book and is very much aimed at scholars and serious students of natural theology. If you want to get into the serious arguments defending Christianity, this is the place to look, but be prepared for a complex read, even if you’re quite comfortable on the Fine-tuning argument material so far.

Level: Advanced 

Video Lessons

Taken from Defenders, William Lane Craig's class on the Fine-Tuning argument in four lessons

Key talks

Here Guillermo Gonzalez goes through the argument from fine-tuning in-depth providing you the argument, the data behind it and the conclusions we can make from it.


The Grand Design – Truth or Fiction?

New atheism and five arguments for God

Barrow and Tipler on the Anthropic principle vs Divine design

The Teleological argument and the Anthropic principle

Why God Exists | Fine-tuning, Beauty, and Discoverability

Does Multiverse fail?

Is pre-mordial soup myth or fact?

Is there scientific evidence for the multiverse?

Is the universe too precise to be randomly formed?

What about Multiverses and parallel universes due to chance?

What good is probability for life-permitting universes?

Should we be surprised the universe is fine-tuned?

If God is perfect, must his design be perfect?

Does a multiverse explain the fine-tuning of the universe?

Would life even possible given different restraints?

Is the design hypothesis for the fence-tuning of the universe inplausible?

Does the world ensemble explain the fine-tuning of the universe?

Does the fine-tuning only concern the initial fine-tuning of the universe?

What is a Boltzmann Brain?