The problem of evil (or argument from evil) is the problem of reconciling the existence of the evil in the world with the existence of an omniscient (all-knowing), omnipotent (all-powerful) and perfectly good God.
The argument from evil is the atheistic argument that the existence of such evil cannot be reconciled with, and so disproves, the existence of such a God. Christianity claims both that God created the world and that he sustains it. Christianity claims that God knows all things and is capable of all feats. Christianity claims that God is perfectly good, and wants only the best for his Creation. If each of these claims is true, though, then it is difficult to see why God allows the evil in the world to persist. The evil in the world thus appears to be at least strong.
What this bank of information will achieve is looking at the logical problem of evil, are God and evil both existing impossible?
The probable version of evil, is it probable that God does not exist because of evil?
The emotional problem of evil, Where is God in my suffering?
Upon those three bases, there are other territories such as natural evil, looking more into moral evil, the teachings of the old testament and how free-will in essence is central to a loving God.
Do watch the introductory videos (I know there’s quite a few) But they will help, I believe, to establish an introductory understanding on the topic.
Clay Jones’ marvel on the problem of evil is recommended to any Christian looking essentially at the questions we really want to understand like why do we suffer for what Adam did? Why not another way? What about eternal punishment? Won’t heaven be boring? And more.
A brilliant book on problems to do with moral evil in the world and this one in particular focus’ on the Old Testament difficult passages that many of us find hard to square.
This book focuses particularly on the Canaanite incidents in the Old Testament. This will get into genocide, differences between murder and killing and all forms of hot topic ethical issues around this.
Plantinga’s masterpiece tackles the topics of evil, human freedom and arguments for God’s existence and weaves them all together into a large piece. This argument from Plantinga was revolutionary for its time and today. It has changed the face of scholarship toward the problem of evil.
A level up and is very much aimed at scholars and serious students of natural theology. If you want to get into the serious arguments defending Christianity, this is the place to look, but be prepared for a complex read, even if you’re quite familiar on the problem of evil.