Shepherd of Hermas

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For this document we have three incomplete Greek texts, one complete Latin, an Ethiopian text and a bunch of other fragments with a quote also by Clement of Alexandria. If the author is the brother of Pius (as the Muratorian Canon states), then this would date the letter to the middle of the second century. Pius was bishop of Rome from AD 140-154. 

The Muratorian Fragment states,In our own times, in the city of Rome, Hermas compiled The Shepherd; his brother, Bishop Pius.” The Muratorian Canon dates to roughly AD 165. At the same time, scholars use the Shepherd of Hermas to date the Muratorian Canon, so this is sometimes thought of as “a circular argument” with regard to the dating.

Reasons for rejection/non-inclusion

  1. Written outside the apostolic age
  2. The author never quotes directly from scripture considering the New Testament texts connect themselves to the Old Testament 
  3. Christian leaders rejected it as inspired
    1. Tertullian saw it as apocryphal
    2. Muratorian fragment refers to it as useful
    3. Eusebius saw it as spurious
  4. Irenaeus & Origen’s citiations arn’t conclusive when talking about such a book being inspired as it would contradict other areas where both have not seen the book as being Canonical

Useful external attestation details 

I am choosing not to go into this as this document is very much in favour of the Christian Faith generally and wouldn’t be seen as a heretical document giving attestation to the original Christian tradition of the Apostolic age. 

Edit: I may do it at a later date! depending on priorities!

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